Category Archives: Orthopaedics

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

Pathogenesis of AVNFH isn’t known, but it occurs when the microcirculation of the femoral head is disrupted, leading to necrosis and eventual subchondral collapse of the femoral head (with consequent secondary arthritis). Incidence is around 1 in 50 000. It … Continue reading

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Flexor sheath infections

AKA infected tenosynovitis. These are bad news; the flexor sheaths in the hand are a closed continuous system; if they get infected, the swelling can lead to necrosis, necrotising faciitis, and osteomyelitis. Common causes include animal bites, puncture wounds, IV … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2019, Don't miss, Orthopaedics, Tendons | Leave a comment

Iliotibial band syndrome

History Occurs in people practicing various forms of athletics (most commonly running, but can be cycling, rowing, swimming, hiking, team games) Most commonly lateral knee pain, but can sometimes affect the hip or thigh. Can show up if training intensity … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2019, Musculoskeletal, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine | Leave a comment

Hip pain in young adults

Like everyone else in medical school, I learned the likely differential diagnoses of hip pain with age; various causes for the various stages of childhood, then osteoarthritis for older people. There is, of course, a big gap there for young … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2018, Orthopaedics | Leave a comment

Degenerative cervical myelopathy

This is the new name for the conditon formerly known as cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and is spinal cord dysfunction from compression in the neck due to degenerative change (disc herniation, ligament hypertrophy/ossification, osteophyte formation). Presentation Gradual onset and worsening of … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2018, Don't miss, Neurology, Orthopaedics | Leave a comment

Acute rotator cuff tears

A possible complication of acute shoulder trauma. Unlike chronic tears, an acute tear needs fairly urgent repair but is easily missed. If a person cannot lift their arm past 90 deg following acute shoulder trauma, they need same-day X-ray and … Continue reading

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Arthroplasties – the post-op period

This BMJ article covers post-op management of shoulder, hip, or knee arthroplasty. A lot of this is obviously going to be managed by the surgical team in question, but there are invariably GP queries, so I thought it was worth … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2017, Joints, Orthopaedics | Leave a comment