Category Archives: Respiratory

Community acquired pneumonia in children

Signs of severity Temperature 38.5 or greater RR >70 in infants or >50 in older children Moderate to severe recession in infants Severe dyspnoea in children Nasal flaring Grunting Intermittent apnoea in infants Sats <95% (this was what the BMJ … Continue reading

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Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

The cause of EILO is unclear, but it may be due to laryngeal hypersensitivity. It’s most common in athletic females under 20. Symptoms include shortness of breath, throat discomfort, chest tightness, and wheeze developing during intense exercise. EILO, for obvious … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2016, ENT, Respiratory | Leave a comment

Occupational asthma

Occupational asthma is caused by an immune reaction to specific agents that are inhaled in the workplace. There are around 400 causative agents, although a small number of these cause most cases. It is different from work-aggravated asthma. Frequently affected … Continue reading

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Pulmonary fibrosis

Causes include: chemical or dust inflammation idiopathic (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis) local fibrosis from infection or infarction various congenital syndromes – neurofibromatosis, Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease, tuberous sclerosis. various acquired inflammatory conditions – RA, AS, Sjogren’s, systemic … Continue reading

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Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in adults

This is transient constriction of the lower airways induced by vigorous exercise, and may or may not be associated by asthma. It is no longer referred to as ‘exercise-induced asthma’. It is caused by dehydration of the respiratory mucosa, due … Continue reading

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Chronic refractory cough

Known by other names (chronic idiopathic cough, unexplained chronic cough), it is defined as: A cough that persists despite specialist guideline treatment. This of course means it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is either one form of cough hypersensitivity … Continue reading

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Wheezing in pre-school children

I never quite understood why wheezing in pre-school children is not meant to be called asthma when it looks like asthma, sounds like asthma and behaves like asthma, but apparently the reason is the absence of eosinophilic airways inflammation. Some … Continue reading

Posted in BMJ, Credits 2013, Paediatrics, Respiratory | Leave a comment