Category Archives: Surgery


A couple of useful points in a BMJ article: Mastitis vs. inflammatory breast cancer Mastitis is more localised, while inflammatory breast cancer can cause redness or skin changes of the whole breast. Inflammatory breast cancer can also cause a general … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2016, Infectious Diseases, Surgery | Leave a comment


Femoral hernias: below/lateral to pubic tubercle. Inguinal: above/medial. Femoral hernias should always be referred due to risk of strangulation. With inguinal, it depends. Incarceration (temporary or permanent) increases the risk a hernia will strangulate but does not necessarily mean it … Continue reading

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Haemorrhoids are enlarged vascular cushions (the vascular cushions are sections of fibrovascular tissue within the anal canal which help control continence by enlarging when needed to provide a firm seal). Internal haemorrhoids – stem from the superior rectal veins (not … Continue reading

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Diverticular disease/diverticulosis/diverticulitis

I thought diverticular disease and diverticulosis were synonyms, but in fact diverticular disease refers to symptomatic diverticula. Diverticulitis, obviously, refers to inflammation/infection. Symptoms of diverticular disease can include: Lower abdominal pain Altered bowel habit Bloating PR bleeding Diverticulitis usually presents … Continue reading

Posted in Gastroenterology, Surgery | Leave a comment

Bariatric surgery – complications to be aware of

Abdominal pain/vomiting in post-op period: Can indicate internal herniation – admit urgently. Acute-onset dysphagia: Can indicate acute band slippage (sometimes severe enough to cause gastric ischaemia) and requires urgent referral for band deflation. Reflux symptoms: Can indicate chronic band slippage … Continue reading

Posted in Obesity, Surgery | Leave a comment