Category Archives: Urology

Prophylaxis of recurrent UTI in women

Background: No official definition, but generally defined by most people as two or more episodes in six months or three or more per year. The only recommended prophylactic treatment currently is low-dose prophylactic antibiotics, which, based on one systematic review/meta-analysis, … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2018, Recurrent UTIs | Leave a comment


A few quick snippets from the 19th Nov BMJ: Duloxetine increases the risk of adverse psychiatric events – anxiety, agitation, self-harm, psychotic behaviour – by more than five times, according to a new Nordic Cochrane Centre meta-analysis although this article … Continue reading

Posted in Incontinence, Ligaments, Medication, Minor but annoying | Leave a comment


Usually self-limiting problem, with infection being the most common cause. History Timing, frequency, duration, fresh or old blood Risk factors for STI Symptoms of UTI Recent urological investigations/interventions Anything to suggest bleeding probs Travel history – TB and schistosomiasis can … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2016, Urology | Leave a comment

Tight foreskin

Uncomplicated phimosis Treat with 4/52 of a moderate to strong steroid cream (e.g. 0.1% Betamethasone), applied to the foreskin but avoiding the glans, and review 1 – 2 weeks later. If symptoms are still troublesome, refer for consideration of circumcision. … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2016, Urology | Leave a comment

Imaging in children with UTI: NICE guidance

Ultrasonography: Everyone <6 months, and recurrent infections (see below) in children >6 months.   Urgent ultrasonography (at time of the infection): < 3 yrs with atypical infection (see below) or <6 months with with recurrent infection (see below).     … Continue reading

Posted in BMJ, Credits 2013, Paediatrics, Radiology, Urology | Leave a comment

Renal calculi

Danger signs: Associated UTI. To complicate the diagnosis here, stones at the VUJ (almost two-thirds of all stones) can cause symptoms of urinary urgency (this is known as strangury, by the way). Always check temperature – >37.5 is an indication … Continue reading

Posted in BMJ, Credits 2012, Urology | Leave a comment

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Presents with a triad of gait disorder, urinary urge incontinence, and increasing memory loss progressing to dementia. Gradual onset and worsening of symptoms. The gait disorder typically starts with subtle general imbalance/unsteadiness and progresses to wide-based short slow shuffling movements, … Continue reading

Posted in Credits 2012, Incontinence, Neurology | Leave a comment